WAEC Home Page Email cara@waec.ac.nz Tailored PD Information Literacy MOE Contracts Links
WAEC Home Page Email cara@waec.ac.nz Tailored PD Information Literacy MOE Contracts


There is a huge amount of literature and discussion around Information Literacy, and it would be easy to read a lot of it and still be confused about what it means for the New Zealand teacher.

Much discussion is around models or methods of teaching Information Literacy, and these Process Models are probably the best way of seeing how Information Literacy relates to the classroom programme.

Information Processing Models

Dykes (2002) identifies three categories for Information Processing Models.

Narrow Sequential

Conducting research.

  • carried out in a series of steps.
  • often includes explicit teaching of the information skills
  • eg. Gwen Gawith Action Learning, The Big Six
Relates directly to NZCF Information Skills
Broad Sequential

Carrying out research AND applying most of the essential learning skills.

  • problem solving
  • learning and adapting
  • a new approach to learning
  • eg Trevor Bond, SAUCE Model

Students look at contradictions and problems and broaden their constructed understandings.

Grounded in the constructivist paradigm.


These are non-prescriptive models which focus on the traits and skills of information literate people.

  • Non-prescriptive
  • Non-linear

Encompasses many

  • Skills
  • Attitudes
  • Values

eg Jamie McKenzie-The Research Cycle

May tie less directly to the NZCF

Follow the links below to discover more about some well-known Information Process Models.

Viscount School

Inquiry Learning

Knowledge Attack


Essential Questions

Subsidary Questions


Develop Research Plans

Gathering Information

Sifting and Sorting



Answering Essential Question

Jamie McKenzie

The Research Cycle









Gwen Gawith

Action Learning

1. Decide

2. Searching and Finding

3. Using and Analysing

4. Recording

5. Presenting and Communicating

6 Evaluating


Gwen Gawith

New (12 week email training course)




Trevor Bond -SAUCE

Set the Scene

Acquire Information

Use Information

Communicate Product


The Big Six

1. Task Definition

2. Information Seeking Strategies

3. Location and Access

4. Use of Information

5. Synthesis

6. Evaluation


Bloom's Taxonomy








Kuhlthau's ISP Model

1. Initiation

2. Selection

3. Exploration

4. Formulation

5. Collection

6. Presentation

NZCF - Information Skills


  • identify, locate, gather, store, retrieve, and process information from a range of sources.
  • organise, analyse, synthesise, evaluate and use he information.
  • present information clearly, logically, concisely, and accurately.
  • identify, describe, and interpret different points of view, and distinguish fact from opinion.
  • use a range of information retrieval and information processing technologies confidently and competently.


Other Useful Information Literacy Links

ICT New Zealand - Trevor Bond's Website

ERO - ICT Evaluation - see No 13

Technology as a Foundation Skill Area - A Journey Towards Information Technology Literacy

ALA - The Nine Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning

Information Literacy Definitions

Educom Review - Information Literacy as a Liberal Art

An Analysis of Information Literacy Education Worldwide - Penny Moore

Essential Information - NZGazette

Students Difficulties with Information Skills - NZGazette

Children Fail Test of Skills to Look Up Facts - News

The New Literacy - NZ Education Gazette

Teaching Media Literacy - Jamie McKenzie

ACE - Infoliteracy





Information Literacy Definitions The ICT and Information Literacy Link Information Literacy Models Information Literacy Definitions The ICT and Information Literacy Link




Cara Gilkison

ICT Facilitator